|22 STANDARDS RELEVANT TO THE OPHTHALMIC PROFESSION
Z80.1 Prescription Ophthalmic Lenses – Recommendations – 2009
The following ANSI quiz will test your knowledge of the various ophthalmic standards.
As ECPs we work in an environment every day that in one or more ways is touched by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). Just how good is your knowledge of these standards? Test your ANSI standards knowledge with the following quiz.
1. What does the abbreviation ANSI stand for?
a. American National Skyline Incorporated
b. American National Service Institute
c. American National Standards Incorporated
d. American National Standards Institute
Correct answer is D. As mentioned on its website, “As the voice of the U.S. standards and conformity assessment system, the American National Standards Institute empowers its members and constituents to strengthen the U.S. marketplace position in the global economy while helping to assure the safety and health of consumers and the protection of the environment.”
The Institute oversees the creation, promulgation, and use of thousands of norms and guidelines that directly impact businesses in nearly every sector: from acoustical devices to construction equipment, from dairy and livestock production to energy distribution, and more. ANSI is also actively engaged in accrediting programs that assess conformance to standards including globally recognized cross-sector programs such as the ISO 9000 (quality) and ISO 14000 (environmental) management systems.
2. According to the Z80.1 standard, how do you visually inspect a finished lens for physical quality and appearance?
a. Hold the lens approximately 12 in. from you and look at a light in the ceiling
b. Hold the lens at arm’s length and look at a light in the ceiling
c. Hold the lens at about 12 in. from a 40-watt bulb against a black background
d. Hold the lens at about 12 in. from a 60-watt bulb against a black background
Correct answer is C. The procedure is described in ANSI Z80.1, section 8.11, Physical Quality and Appearance Test. “The lens inspection is carried out at a light/dark boundary and without the aid of magnifying optics. Inspect the lens within a room with ambient lighting of about 200 Lux. Use as an inspection lamp either a fluorescent tube with a minimum of 15-watt or an open-shaded 40-watt incandescent clear lamp. Position the lens about 300mm from the light source and view against a dark background.”
Note: 1) this observation is subjective and requires some experience. 2) The diagram is adjusted to shield the eye from the light source and to allow the lens to be illuminated by the light as shown in “Diagram for Properly Inspecting a Lens,” at right.
3. ANSI differs from the Food and Drug Administration, Federal Trade Commission, and Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) because it is a
a. private, nongovernmental agency; it issues standards not regulations
b. governmental agency; it issues regulations not laws
c. governmental agency; it issues standards not regulations
d. private, nongovernmental agency; it issues regulations not laws
Correct answer is A. ANSI is a 501(c)3 private, not-for-profit organization. ANSI writes voluntary standards not regulations. ANSI-approved standards only become mandatory when, and if, they are adopted or referenced by the government or when market forces make them imperative (adopted as part of state laws).
4. Which Z87.1 standard(s) does OSHA require safety eyewear to meet?
b. 2010 or 2003
c. 2010, 2003, or 1989
d. 2010, 2003, 1989, or 1982
Correct answer is C. OSHA accepts the three latest ANSI standards (1989, 2003, and 2010) as well as other standards that the employer can demonstrate offer similar requirements, such as the EN166 in Europe or CSA Z94.03-02 eye and face protector standard. OSHA published this information on September 9, 2009 in the Federal Register.
5. Which categories does the ANSI Z87.1, 2010 specify for classifications and specific testing requirements for spectacle safety eyewear?
b. Basic-high impact, high mass
c. Basic-high impact, high mass, penetration impact
Correct answer is D. The 2010 standard has two categories: impact rated and non-impact rated, while the old standard had “basic” and “high impact” protectors.
6. ANSI Z80.3 is the standard that covers mass-produced plano sunglasses. According to this standard, how many UV transmittance specifications are there?
Correct answer is C. The amount of UVA and UVB protection for plano sunwear depends on how a patient intends to use the sunglasses. The two types of use are classified as normal use (from home to the car to the office) or high and prolonged exposure (at the beach, fishing, skiing, etc.). Lenses are also classified for their intended function such as special, dark, general purpose, or cosmetic tint. The combination of the intended function and the type of use gives a total of eight UV transmittance specifications.
7. According ANSI Z80.5 (the standard that covers ophthalmic frames), what is the tolerance for the DBL measurement?
a. +/- 0.5mm
c. +/-0.5 in.
d. +/1.0 in.
Correct answer is A. The ANSI Z80.5, section 5.21.2, titled, “DBL Dimension” states that the DBL tolerance shall be +/- 0.5mm (+/- 0.02 in).
8. How often are the ANSI standards required to be revised?
a. every three years
b. every five years
c. every seven years
d. every 10 years
Correct answer is B. ANSI procedures require that all standards, once established, be reviewed every five years and either revised, reaffirmed, or withdrawn.
9. How many ANSI standards are relevant to the ophthalmic profession?
The correct answer is B. See “22 Standards Relevant to the Ophthalmic Profession,” above.
The ANSI standards comprise a wealth of knowledge for ECPs. Take the time to review and understand them. It’s definitely worth your time.
Randall L. Smith is the Opticianry Program Director at Baker College in Allen Park, MI.
WHERE TO FIND IT:
American National Standards Institute
212-642-4900 • ansi.org